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(a) Give a function of one of the named minerals. Iron is required for haemoglobin which carries oxygen in red blood cells.

(b) The xylem transports water in plants. It is a dead tissue with strengthed walls. Phloem transports food and is a living tissue composed of sieve tubes and companion cells.

(c) Phospholipids with proteins make up the cell membrane, sometimes referred to as the phospholipid bilayer. The water-hating hydrophobic lipid tails are held away from the contents of the cell, while the hydrophillic phosphate head is on the outside.

(d) A, D, E and K are fat-soluble vitamins so B and C are water-soluble.

(e) Lack of vitamin C causes scurvy. Lack of vitamin B causes beri-beri.

(f) Proteins — amino acids

Fats — fatty acids and glycerol

Carbohydrates – glucose